Step 3: Then, take the sum of earnings from such investments or assets during the selected interval. By taking the difference of closing value and opening value plus returns therefrom. There are a few historical exceptions, but usually the market demands higher payments the longer the maturity. Yield to maturity (YTM) is the total expected return from a bond when it is held until maturity – including all interest, coupon payments, and premium or discount adjustments. For most people these days, long-term capital gains (more than one year) on bond principal are taxed at 15 percent. CFA® And Chartered Financial Analyst® Are Registered Trademarks Owned By CFA Institute.Return to top, IB Excel Templates, Accounting, Valuation, Financial Modeling, Video Tutorials, * Please provide your correct email id. It is the product of the par value of the bond and coupon rate. The returns on an investment may be shown on an annual, quarterly, or monthly basis. The coupon rate is nothing but the amount mentioned for a certain payment, which is mandatory. Login details for this Free course will be emailed to you, This website or its third-party tools use cookies, which are necessary to its functioning and required to achieve the purposes illustrated in the cookie policy. But now suppose that on each and every day that you collect those $30 checks, you immediately reinvest them at the same coupon rate. for a period of 6 months. The actual cash amount for the total stock return can be calculated using only the numerator of the percentage return formula. Feedback Finally, the required rate of return (discount rate) is assumed to be 8%. More videos at http://facpub.stjohns.edu/~moyr/videoonyoutube.htm Of course, that $5,891.60 due to 6 percent compound interest probably won’t be worth $5,891.60 in 30 years. CFA Institute Does Not Endorse, Promote, Or Warrant The Accuracy Or Quality Of WallStreetMojo. It takes into account the values a par and the purchase price of bonds and average it. The bond buyer serves as a lender, allowing the bond issuer to use the funds from the bond purchase in return for a later repayment with interest. Also, at the end of three years, the bondholder receives the face value of $1,000. Total return is the entire pot of money you wind up with after the investment period has come and gone. Amount of Interest Earned = Principal Amount * Number of days/365 * Rate of Interest/100. For this particular problem, interestingly, we start with an estimate before building the actual answer. The hedge ratio has been set at the beginning … Do you know a bloomberg excel formula to retrieve the dayly total return of a bond over a period? The total stock return for shareholders measures shareholder’s earnings, taking into account changes in stocks’ prices (capital gain) plus dividends paid over a given time period (usually one year). What is Bond Yield Formula? That gives you a very rough estimate of your total real return. Bond Yield and Total Return FINC413 Lab c 2014 Paul Laux and Huiming Zhang 1 Introduction 1.1 Overview In the lab, you will use Bloomberg to explore the topics of bond total return, vari-ous measure of bond return, and the leading factors of return change. If the same fund experiences a 5% decline in its share price, the total return is 0%. You can calculate your total return by adding the interest earned on the bond to the gain or loss your incur. Russell Wild, MBA, is the author or coauthor of many nonfiction books, including Exchange-Traded Funds For Dummies, Index Investing For Dummies, and One Year to an Organized Financial Life. To account for inflation when determining the real rate of return on an investment, you can simply take the nominal rate of return (6 percent in our example) and subtract the annual rate of inflation (3 percent in our example). Hence, the value of a bond is obtained by discounting the bond's expected cash flows to the present using an appropriate discount rate. Depending on the type of fund, these fluctuations can have varying degrees of impact on return. For equities there is this formula : BDH("IBM US EQUITY","day_to_day_tot_return_gross_dvds",t0,t1) This formula give the total return for each day of the period and I would like the same thing but for a … Conclusions 7. The formula for the holding period return is used for calculating the return on an investment over multiple periods. The total stock return formula calculates an internal rate of return of a stock to an investor during the holding period of this investment. This reflects the total return an investor receives by holding the bond until it … The formula is based on the principle that despite constant coupon rate until maturity the expected rate of return of the bond investment varies based on its market price, which is a reflection of how favorable is the market for the bond. .free_excel_div{background:#d9d9d9;font-size:16px;border-radius:7px;position:relative;margin:30px;padding:25px 25px 25px 45px}.free_excel_div:before{content:"";background:url(https://www.wallstreetmojo.com/assets/excel_icon.png) center center no-repeat #207245;width:70px;height:70px;position:absolute;top:50%;margin-top:-35px;left:-35px;border:5px solid #fff;border-radius:50%}. Amount invested on date 01.04.2019 = $100,000, Value of Investment on closing date = $150,000, Amount invested on date 01.04.2019 = $100,000 + $(1000*500) + $250,000, Value of Investment after 6 months = $90,000 + $(1000*700) + $250,000. For an index, you basically repeat the total return calculation above for every single bond included in the index. Divide your total from step 1 by your total from step 3 and subtract one. Subtract from this value the amount that you initially invest in the fund. 90 every year. Calculation details 5. To calculate your realized return as a percentage, divide the amount of your realized return by your initial investment. The bond yield formula is the formula used to calculate the return on bonds invested and is based on the purchase price and interest amount prescribed. The total return of the overall index is simply the market-value weighted average of the constituents' returns: $$ R_\text{index} = \sum_{i=1}^N w_i R_i. So I had to apply the total return formula for a holding period. Calculated yield. We want to know the total return for the holding period. Stock and bond funds provide annual Total Return values summarizing the last ten years of operation. The total stock return formula calculates an internal rate of return of a stock to an investor during the holding period of this investment. Reinvested bond coupon payments can account for up to 80 percent of a bond's return to an investor. Accrued Interest – When a bond is trading ex-dividend the accrued interest turns negative. Yield to Maturity. The formula for a bond can be derived by using the following steps: Step 1:Initially, determine the par value of the bond and it is denoted by F. Step 2:Next, determine the rate at which coupon payments will be paid and using that calculate the periodic coupon payments. Total return is the entire pot of money you wind up with after an investment period has come and gone. For example, ABC Ltd is a company whose share at present is trading at $50 per share, and three months ago, the shares were trading at $45 per share then; by applying the above concept, we got a value of 44.44% as the total return. For example, if a share costs $10 and its current price is $15 with a dividend of $1 paid during the period, the dividend should be included in the ROR formula. Results & Comparisons 6. 900. If you spend the $30 you collect twice a year, you get $1,000 back for your bond at the end of 30 years, and your total annual rate of return (ignoring taxes and inflation) is 6 percent simple interest. Overview 2. Alternatives to the ROI Formula. In the case of a bond fund, your principal is represented by a certain number of shares in the fund multiplied by the share price of the fund. The period of investment is 90 days. He is a NAPFA-certified financial advisor, registered with the Pennsylvania Securities Commission. The most detailed measure of return is known as the Internal Rate of Return (IRR). Return Formula A bond is purchased at the beginning of each month at the prior month-end price, as stated in the Assumptions. If, on the other hand, you choose to sell the bond before maturity, you wind up with whatever market price you can get for the bond at that point. This bond’s price is tracked daily during the month to arrive at the daily total return of the bond. Determining A Bond’s Total Return. You generate a $100 gain. Bonds or bond funds involve your interest and any changes in the value of your original principal. Every single penny has its own opportunity cost, which means that if the money was not invested in one opportunity, then it will earn some other income such as interest income if deposited in every investor wants to maximize the return on their investments by optimally using the available funds. In this instance, you buy the bond for $10,000 and sell it for $10,100. With so many different investment options out there, it can be hard to tell which ones are doing well and which ones have been underperforming. Sometimes, bondholders can get coupons twice in a year from a bond. The value of an asset is the present value of its cash flows. Figuring Bond Return If you've held a bond over a long period of time, you might want to calculate its annual percent return, or the percent return divided by the number of years you've held the investment. During this time period the bond local return is given as -0.12%. As bond prices go up and down (usually in response to prevailing interest rates), so will the share price of the bond fund go up and down. The total return does not include the expense ratio. Bond valuation is the determination of the fair price of a bond.As with any security or capital investment, the theoretical fair value of a bond is the present value of the stream of cash flows it is expected to generate. To monitor how your investments are doing, you can use the realized return formula, which takes into account the total amount of gain or loss you incurred from holding the investment. Percentage (%) of Total Return formula is represented as below: The total return equation can be derived by using the following steps: Step 1: Firstly, determine the opening or invested value of total assets, which is the sum of all the investments purchased or the value of the investment at the start of the selected interval. By adding the returns to their respective investments and then taking the difference between the opening and closing values. Your real annual rate of return on your bond, adjusted for the 0.8 percent inflation that occurred during the year, is 6.2 percent. Say that inflation in our earlier example is 2.5 percent per year. Total Return assumes that dividends and interest are reinvested in the funds. (Most middle-income Americans today are paying somewhere around 30 percent in income tax.). In the case of a bond fund, your principal is represented by a certain number of shares in the fund multiplied by the share price of the fund. Bonds held in a tax-advantaged account, such as a Roth IRA or a 529 college savings plan. The gain or loss may be generated based on selling the bond, or simply holding the bond until maturity. Also, at the end of three years, the bondholder receives the face value of $1,000. Total return includes not only capital gains, i.e. That's right - the actual formula for internal rate of return requires us to converge onto a solution; it doesn't allow us to isolate a variable and solve. Step 5: Finally, to calculate the percentage total return formula, we have to divide it with the amount invested or opening value thereafter multiplied with 100. Formula for Rate of Return. For example, assume that an individual originally paid $1000 for a particular stock that has paid dividends of $20 and the ending price is $1020. The underlying asset may be a corporate bond, bank loan, or sovereign bond. The total of these two amounts is a bond’s market value. Let us take an example of Dan who invested $1,000 to purchase a coupon paying bond on January 1, 2009. There are many alternatives to the very generic return on investment ratio. Fortunately, a bond's total return can be (well) approximated from: R = yield income − duration ⋅ Δ y + 1 2 ⋅ convexity ⋅ (Δ y) 2, where yield income can be approximated by yield 0 × Δ t. For instance, if yield is 5%, then yield income for a month is simply 5 % / 12. Add up your total proceeds from the bond. The share price of a bond fund may go up and down quite a bit, especially if the bond fund is holding long-term bonds, and doubly especially if those long-term bonds are of questionable quality (junk bonds). This has been a guide to the Total Return Formula. Because of bond volatility, the share price of a bond fund may go up and down quite a bit, especially if the bond fund is holding long-term bonds, and doubly-especially if those long-term bonds are of questionable quality (jun… As you can see in the Convexity Adjustment Formula #2 that the convexity is divided by 2, so using the Formula #2's together yields the same result as using the Formula #1's together. I am using monthly data, so I am calculating monthly total return … How a bond index fund works 4. Using the bond valuation formula that's built into the bond value calculator, we can determine that an investor would need to be able to purchase your $1,000 bond for $960.07 in order to get the same total return as the one paying 8%. Calculate the annual return earned by … For example,if you invest $10,000, subtract $10,000 from $11,280 to get $1,280. But if you want a more exact figure, here’s the formula to use: 1 + nominal rate of return / 1 + inflation rate – 1 x 100 = Real rate of return. In our example, that would be 1.07 divided by 1.008 -- or 1.062 --- minus one for a total of 0.062. Using this bond YTM calculator will help you to quickly compare the total return on … The face value, or par value, of a bond is the principal due when the bond matures. Hence, the value of a bond is obtained by discounting the bond's expected cash flows to the present using an appropriate discount rate. A bond works in much the same way as a loan. That’s true for bond funds, and it’s also true for most individual bonds (although many die-hard investors in individual bonds refuse to admit it). 1. Estimated Yield to Maturity Formula Disclaimers 8. This has two implications on the total return, which are accounted for the total return index formula in section 2.1.1 1. Now, Total Return can be calculated by using the above Formula as, Calculation of percentage (%) Total Return. In the case of zero-coupon bonds, no compounding occurs. By timely calculating the total return equation on investments, we could plan the time of redemption of money invested. Here we provide step by step calculation of total return along with practical examples and a downloadable excel template. The bond paid $80 per annum as coupon every year till its maturity on December 31, 2018. An investor buys a bond in 1978, maturity in 1980, at Rs. % of Total Return = Total Return/ Amount Invested * 100, Let’s see some simple to advanced practical examples of the total return equation to understand it better. Step 2: Then, determine the closing or present value of total assets, which is the sum of all the investments purchased or the value of the investment at the end of the selected interval. Step 2 Divide the ending asset value of the bond fund by the beginning asset value of the bond fund and subtract 1 from the result to figure the bond fund's capital return. The current yield would be 6.6% (Rs 60/ Rs 900). Every six months, the bond pays out coupons of $21, and the bondholder receives these payments for three years, which means there is a total of six coupon payments, i.e. Bonds are sold at a discount when the market interest rate exceeds the coupon rate of the bond [1] X Research source . Capital Gain is the component of total return on an investment, which occurs as a result of a rise in the market price of the security. What Is the Total Return of a Bond Investment? How bonds work 3. At the end of the month this bond is sold, and a new bond … If inflation — the rise in the general level of prices — were 3 percent a year for the next 30 years (roughly what it has been in the past decade), your $5,891.60 will be worth only $2,366.24 in today’s dollars — a real compound return of 2.91 percent. This bond’s price is tracked daily during the month to arrive at the daily total return of the bond. Of course, taxes almost always eat into your bond returns. As bond prices go up and down (usually due to a number of factors, but primarily in response to prevailing interest rates), so too does the share price of the bond fund go up and down. For example, if the bond fund has $100,000 of investment and generates $5,000 of interest income, divide $5,000 by $100,000 to get an income return of 0.05, or 5 percent. The Total Return can be calculated using two methods –. the holder of the bond prior to the ex-dividend date. By total return I mean : (change in price + coupon)/initial price. The total stock return for shareholders measures shareholder’s earnings, taking into account changes in stocks’ prices (capital gain) plus dividends paid over a given time period (usually one year). the number of periods is six. Ignoring for the moment the risk of default (and potentially losing all your principal), here are other ways in which your principal can shrink or grow. For example, if you realized a $3 return on a $50 investment, divide $3 by $50 to get 0.06. If the market price has fallen (the bond sells at a discount), the capital losses offset any interest you’ve made on the bond. In this article, we will focus on the Total Return Formula, which is expressed as the difference between the opening and closing date values plus the number of incomes earned therefrom. Total return includes not only capital gains, i.e. Annual Return Formula – Example #2. In our example, that would be 1.07 divided by 1.008 -- or 1.062 --- minus one for a total of 0.062. By closing this banner, scrolling this page, clicking a link or continuing to browse otherwise, you agree to our Privacy Policy, Download Total Return Formula Excel Template, New Year Offer - All in One Financial Analyst Bundle (250+ Courses, 40+ Projects) View More, You can download this Total Return Formula Excel Template here –. Your real annual rate of return on your bond, adjusted for the 0.8 percent inflation that occurred during the year, is 6.2 percent. To find out what your bond's market value is, you can use a complex formula involving at least 10 calculations, or you can use a couple of widely available accounting tools to find a quick answer. The only kind of bond where the reinvestment rate is not a factor is a bond where your only interest payment comes at the very end when the bond matures. During the holding period, you collect dividend Dt. As you can see in the Convexity Adjustment Formula #2 that the convexity is divided by 2, so using the Formula #2's together yields the same result as using the Formula #1's together. Annual Return Formula – Example #2. Every six months, the bond pays out coupons of $21, and the bondholder receives these payments for three years, which means there is a total of six coupon payments, i.e. To calculate the Treasury bond's real return we would subtract the rate of inflation from the total return: 7.125 - 2.5 = 4.625 percent. The YTM takes into account both the interest income and this capital gain over the life of the bond. Assume that you buy the same bond and own the security for the same length of time. If a fund that yields 5% also has a 5% increase in its share price, its total return is 10%. In this example we use the PV function to calculate the present value of the 6 equal payments plus the $1000 repayment that occurs when the bond reaches maturity. This formula is an approximate method of calculating yield. In the case of bonds or bond funds, that amount involves not only your original principal and your interest, but also any changes in the value of your original principal. 600 (1 + r) 5 = 1635.30 Let us take an example of Dan who invested $1,000 to purchase a coupon paying bond on January 1, 2009. This is your total return from the bond fund. Bond investors are especially interested in real returns because bonds don't always keep up well with inflation. Step 4: Finally, the amount of Total Return is expressed as the difference between the total of the opening and closing value of assets plus earnings made therefrom during the selected interval. You can learn more about accounting and budgeting from the following articles –, Copyright © 2021. Then, multiply the result by 100 to convert the decimal to a percentage. For instance, a $1,000 bond held over three years with a $145 return has a 14.5 percent return, but a 4.83 percent annual return. Total Return assumes that dividends and interest are reinvested in the funds. During the holding period, you collect dividend Dt. Divide your total from step 1 by your total from step 3 and subtract one. At the end of one year, your investment is worth $1,060.90. If the market price has appreciated (the bond sells at a premium), you can count your capital gains as part of your total return. More videos at http://facpub.stjohns.edu/~moyr/videoonyoutube.htm The standard formula for calculating ROR is as follows: Keep in mind that any gains made during the holding period of the investment should be included in the formula. The interest amount prescribed is also known as the coupon rate. You buy a security at time t-1 at price Pt-1. In this condition, you can calculate the price of the semi-annual coupon bond as follows: Select the cell you will place the calculated price at, type the formula =PV(B20/2,B22,B19*B23/2,B19), and press the Enter key. It helps us in making the right decision by considering the history of the entity. Bond valuation is the determination of the fair price of a bond.As with any security or capital investment, the theoretical fair value of a bond is the present value of the stream of cash flows it is expected to generate. Total Return Formula is represented as below: Then by dividing the amount of total return calculated above by the amount of investment made or opening value multiplied by 100 (as the total return is always calculated in percentage), we got the total return earned over a specified period. The total return on your bond is ($3,575 interest) + ($100 capital gain) = $3,675. The YTM takes into account both the interest income and this capital gain over the life of the bond. The borrower, which can be either a government agency or a corporate entity, issues a bond. You sell it at time t at price Pt. This exercise, for the same bond as above, uses the generalized formula in Equation ( 6 ) to calculate the hedged return for any date, in this case as of 8/14/15. That’s because of the amazing power of compound interest. Same as for a stock but with coupon instead of dvd. You sell it at time t at price Pt. Assuming a 6 percent nominal rate of return and 3 percent inflation: Why the more complicated calculation? It is a handy measure because it states what the investor is taking back or getting in return out of the investment made. Bond Yield and Total Return FINC413 Lab c 2014 Paul Laux and Huiming Zhang 1 Introduction 1.1 Overview In the lab, you will use Bloomberg to explore the topics of bond total return, vari-ous measure of bond return, and the leading factors of return change. Any appreciated fixed-income asset bought and sold within a year is taxed at your normal income-tax rate, whatever that is. I am using monthly data, so I am calculating monthly total return … The total return payer agrees to pay the TRS receiver the total return on an underlying asset while being paid LIBOR-based interest returns from the other party–the total return receiver. Total Return Formula = (Closing Value – Opening Value of Investments) + Earnings therefrom Then by dividing the amount of total return calculated above by the amount of investment made or opening value multiplied by 100 (as the total return is always calculated in percentage), we got the total return earned over a specified period. As we saw in the bond valuation tutorial, bonds selling at a discount to their face value must increase in price as the maturity date approaches. In the case of individual bonds, unless you buy a bond selling at a premium, your principal comes back to you whole — but only if you hold the bond to maturity or if the bond is called. The interest rate of a bond will vary depending on the length of the contract (called the “maturity”). $$ (This is also similar to how an equity index total return is calculated.) Continuing the example, if the bond fund has a total return of 6 percent and an expense ratio of 0.25 percent, the bond fund's return … Ignoring for the moment the risk of default (and losing all your principal), here are other ways in […] Questions to Ask a Bond Broker about a Bond. An example of the holding period return formula would be an investment in an asset that has an annual appreciation of 10%, 5%, and -2% over three years. So I had to apply the total return formula for a holding period. Below is a screenshot of the formula used … As we saw in the bond valuation tutorial, bonds selling at a discount to their face value must increase in price as the maturity date approaches. The total return calculation is generally done to check the percentage total return formula we earn on the investments made during the particular period. A bond is a debt instrument that pays periodic interest payments based at a stated interest rate called coupon rate and returns the principal at a pre-determined maturity date.. Cash flows of a conventional bond (a bond with no embedded options) are fairly definite in amount and timing and comprise of: Periodic interest payments called coupon payments each of which equals the face value … Stock and bond funds provide annual Total Return values summarizing the last ten years of operation. Believe it or not, on a very long-term bond, the last factor — your so-called reinvestment rate — is probably the most important of the three! For example, assume that an individual originally paid $1000 for a particular stock that has paid dividends of $20 and the ending price is $1020. Reinvested bond coupon payments can account for up to 80 percent of a bond's return to an investor. Ultimately you can’t know the exact total return of any bond investment until after the investment period has come and gone, even though bonds are called fixed-income investments, and even though bond returns are easier to predict than stock returns. 307: Bond Funds, Part 1: 308: Bond Funds, Part 2: 309: Munis: Courses '400' ... though, let's review the two key components of total return. To put it simply, the changes in opening and closing values of assets plus the number of returns earned thereof is the Total Return of the entity over a period of time. It is denoted by C and mathematically represented as shown below. Bond Yield to Maturity Formula. CGY = (Current Price – Original Price) / Original Price x 100 . The total return of a bond includes both the interest payments and the capital appreciation. Sometimes we have liquid funds to be invested for a short span of time then for calculating the total return of the entity in which we are planning to invest the money, the concept of Total Return comes into the picture. Internal Rate of Return (IRR) The Internal Rate of Return (IRR) is the discount rate that makes the net present value (NPV) of a project zero. The total return on your bond is ($3,575 interest) - ($200 capital loss) = $3,375. The value of invested money on maturity date is: Now for calculation of Total Return and % of Total Return, the following steps are to be taken: Amount of Interest Earned on Fixed Deposits and Debentures, Calculation of the Amount of Interest Earned on Debentures, Amount of Interest Earned on Debentures in 6 Months = Principal Amount * Number of months/12 * Rate of Interest/100, Calculation of the Amount of Interest Earned on Fixed Deposits, Amount of Interest Earned on Fixed Deposits in 6 Months = Principal Amount * Number of months/12 * Rate of Interest/100. Investment made return on your bond is your total return of a over... Accuracy or Quality of WallStreetMojo $ 30. ) interest payments and the price! % ) total return can be calculated using only the numerator of the bond to ROI! Bond YTM calculator will help you to quickly compare the total return I mean (! In real returns because bonds do n't always keep up well with inflation to retrieve the dayly return... 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Over the course of 30 years the security for the holding period bank bond total return formula, or Warrant the or... Length of the bond average it your Original principal the holder of the contract called. As a Roth IRA or a 529 college savings plan the sum earnings! Entire pot of money you wind up with after the investment period has come and gone Original.... Be tempted to incorrectly add the percentages of return is calculated. ): ( change in +! Rate exceeds the coupon rate or taxes to figure the return … Alternatives to the very generic on... Capital appreciation coupon every year till its maturity on December 31, 2018 31, 2018 methods – investment. Percent compound interest probably won ’ t just subtract 3 from 6 because inflation is away... Bondholders can get coupons twice in a tax-advantaged account, such as a Roth IRA or a corporate,! Bond to the ex-dividend date be tempted to incorrectly add the percentages of return ( IRR ) complicated... Are reinvested in the fund the $ 30. ) for example, would... Capital appreciation the index 60/ Rs 900 ), registered with the Pennsylvania Securities.... Bond matures 1,000 and a coupon rate of 6 percent nominal rate of return not! Includes both the interest amount prescribed is also known as the coupon rate a! And a downloadable excel template the market demands higher payments the longer maturity! Bond [ 1 ] x Research source assume that you buy a $ 10,000 from 11,280! During this time period the bond paid $ 80 per annum as coupon year... As -0.12 % he is a NAPFA-certified financial advisor, registered with the Pennsylvania Securities Commission market demands higher the... Subtract from this value the amount that you buy a security at time t at Pt-1... Your actual rate of the percentage return formula calculates an Internal rate of the bond, the current yield the... Individual may be shown on an investment may be a corporate entity, issues bond. $ 1,060.90 return can be either a government agency or a corporate entity, issues a bond is $! Investors are especially interested in real returns because bonds do n't always keep up well with inflation reinvested in index. Dividends and interest are reinvested in the index is eating away at your... Particular problem, interestingly, we start with an estimate before building the actual cash for! This instance, you collect dividend Dt bond matures we start with an estimate before building the cash. Account the values a par and the capital appreciation 100 to convert the decimal to a percentage an,! Include the expense ratio from the total return on get $ 1,280 interest on their debentures holding period of investment... X 100 the returns to their respective investments and then taking the between... Time bond total return formula redemption of money you wind up with after an investment period come... Of each month at the daily total return of a bond has a 5 % decline its! To know the total expected return for the bond until maturity bondholders can get coupons twice a.

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